Las Vanguardias

Las Vanguardias

Las vanguardias son corrientes literarias nacida en Europa a comienzos del siglo XX. Que  representó un modo particular de producción cultural en un periodo determinado de la historia.  Cuyo surgimiento se dio entre dos guerras mundiales .

Fue un movimiento artísticos y literarios se oponen,  al pasado y proponen en sus manifiestos nuevas concepciones del arte y de letras.

El vanguardismo significó uno de los momentos de mayor unidad entre los artistas europeos que se proyectaron hacia la construcción de un nuevo tipo humano, de una nueva cultura y, por tanto, de una nueva sociedad; por lo tanto, no fue un movimiento unitario, sino más bien, se conformó por una serie de movimientos.

 

Estos movimientos  tenían sus propias técnicas e impresiones, pero se unificaban por tener la intención de crear un arte radicalmente nuevo que rompiera con el Realismo literario. Ver REALISMO 

Los Vanguardistas eran defensores del antirrealismo, de la autonomía del arte, del recurso a lo ilógico de lo onírico.

Además de tener un rechazo a la realidad objetiva, como la habían concebido el Realismo y el Naturalismo (verosimilitud y mímesis).

También se  caracterizan por  situar sus obras muchas veces en los límites de la comprensión, solicitando el esfuerzo del lector para profundizar en la realidad.

Como se mencionó las vanguardias son un conjunto de movimientos y tendencias artísticas y literarias de carácter renovador que surgieron a principios del siglo XX, conocidas como Ismos.

Algunos de estos movimientos Vanguardistas  fueron: 

  •  el futurismo italiano

  • el cubismo

  • el dadaísmo francés

  • el ultraísmo español

  • el creacionismo chileno

Principales características de Las Vanguardias

Recordemos que  Las vanguardias no fueron unitarias, sí es cierto que podemos aplicar
algunas características generales y comunes a un gran número de autores

  •  El internacionalismo:  Frente al nacionalismo de la literatura anterior, preocupada por la
    problemática social de los países concretos, los artistas de vanguardia se consideraron ciudadanos
    del mundo.
  • Antitradicionalismo:  se abandona lo heredado de periodos anteriores.
  •  Es un arte intelectual que suele despreciar las emociones.
  •  Es un arte deshumanizado: desprovisto de sentimientos y pasiones humanas.
  •  Busca la espontaneidad:  frente al trabajo previo y minucioso.
  •  su  arte se valdrá de dos herramientas principales: El humor, porque es útil para desmitificar y desdramatizar y la metáfora en la que los términos que se comparan tengan poca relación.

 Obras importantes de las vanguardias:

  •  Manifiesto surrealista de André Breton
  • Luna Park de Luis Cardoza y Aragón.
  • Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada  de Pablo Neruda  (entre otros)
Referencias

El concepto de Vanguardia en las literaturas hispánicas, en Estudios ofrecidos a Emilio Alarcos Llorach. Oviedo: Universidad de Oviedo.

SUÁREZ GUERRINI, F. (2008) “El aura de la vanguardia. Sobre los dorados años
sesenta”, en revista Figuraciones nº4, http://revistafiguraciones.com.ar/numeroactual/articulo.php?ida=73&idn=4&arch=1#text

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