El Formalismo Ruso

El Formalismo Ruso

El Formalismo Ruso es uno de los movimientos de teoría y crítica literaria más importantes del siglo XX. Surgió en Rusia entre 1914 y los años 1930.

El formalismo fue el primer movimiento crítico ruso que se ocupó de problemas como el ritmo, la métrica, el estilo y la composición sistemáticamente.

Además es  una tendencia que reacciona contra el subjetivismo y simbolismo que predominaban en   el circulo lingüístico de Moscú. Y se interesaban por los estudios científico de la lingüística y de la poética.

Según  Jakobson:

“el formalismo es una etiqueta vaga y desconcertante que los detractores lanzaron para estigmatiza todo análisis de la función poética del lenguaje, creó el espejismo de un dogma uniforme y consumado” (Jakobson, 1965: 8).

 

El formalismo Ruso

Se encargaban de descubrir los rasgos distintivos de la literatura imaginativa, la naturaleza y la literariedad.

Sugiriendo que lo literario se debería buscar en la obra misma, que le va permitir diferenciar entro lo qué es y no es literario.  Asimismo, se interesaban de “la forma y contenido” en la obra literaria.

El formalismo Ruso se encarga:
  • Los elementos que entran en la construcción: El tema, fábula, sujeto, motivo y narrador.
  • Las leyes internas que rigen dicha construcción: Se establece el escalonamiento de episodio, los recursos temporales, las intercalaciones y las características del verso.
  • Se establecen las palabras con valor semántico.
  • se analiza el sonido, silabas, unidades métricas, acentos, sintaxis, símbolos y rima.

 

 

 

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