El barroco

El barroco

El barroco es un periodo de la historia de la humanidad que prevaleció en Europa y en Hispanoamérica desde finales del siglo XVI hasta los primeros años del siglo XVIII

  • El  barroco fue un término que  tuvo en su origen un carácter peyorativo.
  • fue un término que se  adoptado para definir el conjunto de rasgos propios de la cultura del siglo XVII.
  • No obstante, es  difícil ver el Barroco como un movimiento de ruptura con las ideas básicas del Renacimiento.
  • se debe ver el mismo como  una continuidad y una evolución que, con el paso del tiempo, acaba  produciendo grandes diferencias entre ambos siglos.

Contexto histórico  del barro en España

El Barroco es en España un periodo paradójico. Culturalmente (literatura, pintura, música…) constituye un “Siglo de Oro”, pero, desde una perspectiva histórica, resulta un “siglo de hierro” o de crisis:

  •  Demográfica: La población disminuye de manera alarmante a causa del
    hambre y de la subsiguiente mortalidad. El despoblamiento del campo se agrava con
    la expulsión de los moriscos.
  • Económica: España está en bancarrota, debido a las guerras exteriores, los
    conflictos internos, epidemias, sequías, pérdida de la población campesina, la
    disminución del oro de América, el exceso de privilegiados, el despilfarro de la Corte y
    la ausencia de una burguesía emprendedora
  •  Social: Se trata de una sociedad estamental en la que encontramos:
    • La nobleza privilegiada, que apenas paga impuestos y que monopoliza la tierra y los cargos públicos. Estaba formada por Grandes de España, caballeros e hidalgos que vivían, o aparentaban hacerlo, de sus rentas.
    • El clero, cuya influencia social y cultural es enorme.
    •  Los militares, formados por nobles, burgueses y desvalidos, entre los que cada vez es más frecuente la imagen del soldado indisciplinado.
    • Los plebeyos, burgueses y campesinos que se ven castigados con fuertes impuestos y muy afectados por las sucesivas crisis económicas.
    • Los miserables eran mendigos, pícaros, bandidos y ladrones, cuyo número
      aumenta con los campesinos hambrientos que llegan a las ciudades.
  •  Política. La monarquía es autoritaria y gobiernan los validos como el Conde Duque de Olivares. España pierde su supremacía en Europa.

El Barroco se produce una progresiva  desvalorización de lo terrenal, y se vuelve a insistir en ideas medievales:

  1. La fugacidad de lo terrenal
  2.  La vida está presidida por la idea de la muerte
  3.  La realidad se ve como una ilusión o apariencia

Este pesimismo barroco puede manifestarse de formas diversas: mediante la  angustia existencial, mediante la protesta o la sátira, mediante el estoicismo o resignación.

CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA LITERATURA BARROCA ESPAÑOLA

La Literatura es a la vez continuidad del Renacimiento en temas, géneros y formas, y manifestación de una nueva sensibilidad que refleja los problemas de la época y sus ideas filosóficas.

Los escritores del Barroco buscan la originalidad y así surgen novedades en los tres géneros literarios, a la vez que se origina un tratamiento diferente de los temas clásicos y la reaparición de viejos temas medievales.

Características:

  •  La presencia constante del pesimismo y del desengaño
  • La actitud crítica satírica y hasta sarcástica, que permite la aparición de géneros como la picaresca y transforma algunos temas como el del amor.
  • Buscar provocar la intranquilidad del espectador, la extrañeza.
  • Desplazamiento del tema central a un plano secundario o último.
  • Preferencia por lo extraño, extravagante, oscuro e insondable. Confunde lo irreal con lo real
  • Sugiere la fugacidad del tiempo
  •  La lengua literaria se enriquece con la incorporación de cultismos y con el retorcimiento expresivo que se produce con el hipérbaton, los juego palabras, la acumulación de imágenes, metáforas, antítesis, paradojas.

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