Las Citas / Normas APA 6ta Edición

Las Citas / Normas APA 6ta Edición

Las Citas Son las expresiones parciales de ideas o afirmaciones incluidas en un texto con referencia precisa de su origen o fuente y la consignación dentro de la estructura del texto. Además Las citas  es lo que ofrecen información  sobre el autor y y año de publicación, que conduce al lector a las referencias que se deben consignar al final del documento.

Formas de hacer citas con el Manual de APA  6ta Edición

Existen dos formas  de realizar una cita dependiendo de lo que se quiera enfatizar con ella:

  •  En el primer caso la cita que autor cuando lo que se quiere citar o resaltar es el pensamiento o la posición específica de alguien sobre algún tema.
  • Segunda cita: son las citas basadas en el texto, en donde se hace referencia a una frase o teoría específica en la que el autor tiene un papel secundario.

Asimismo, es necesario recalcar que existen las citas textuales o citas parafraseadas.

La cita textual

Se usa este tipo de cita cuando se extrae un fragmento o idea textual  y cuando se omite una frase o palabra resulta necesario  remplazar por punto (…).  Para este tipo cita necesita incluir:

➡ El Apellido del Autor.

➡El año de publicación

➡ La página en la cual esta extraído el texto.

 

▶ La cita textual: Menos de 40 palabras

Cuando la cita tiene menos de 40 palabras se escribe inmerso en el texto, entre comillas, sin cursivas y se escribe punto después de finalizar la cita y todos los datos.

Ejemplo de  cita:  “En estudios psicométricos realizados por la Universidad de Connecticut… se ha
encontrado que los niños tienen menos habilidades que las niñas” (Ferrer, 1986, p.454).

▶ Cita textual: Más de 40 palabras

Aquellas citas  que tienen más de 40 palabras se escriben aparte del texto, ademas llevan sangría a la izquierda y sin comillas. se conserva el tamaño y delante de la cita se coloca el punto después de los datos   y de igual forma la organización de los datos pueden variar según el énfasis que le vas a colocar  a la cita.

 

Ejemplo de  cita: Para entender la obra y pensamiento del autor, es importante conocer algunos aspectos de su contexto:

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) es uno de los físicos más famosos del siglo XX. Einstein nación en Alemania. Cuando estaba en la preparatoria, quebró el negocio de su padre y su familia emigró a Milán, Italia. Einstein se tuvo que quedar porque en las leyes alemanas el cumplimiento de servicio militar era obligatorio al terminar la preparatoria. Einstein quería
reunirse con su familia en Italia. Su maestro de matemáticas escribió una carta diciendo que podía tener un colapso
nervioso por la ausencia de su familia y que no quedaba nada por enseñarle. Con el tiempo, se le pidió que abandonara la
escuela debido a si mala conducta.

La citas  con errores ortográficos:

Si la cita contiene un error ortográfico, de puntuación o escritura. este debe colocarse tal y como esta en el texto, sólo que se anota la palabra con “[sic]” inmediatamente después de la palabra mal escrita, esto va indicar que el error proviene de la fuente original.

 

▶Citar de fuentes secundarías

cuando un autor  ha citado a otro en su trabajo, y se quiere tomar esa misma idea, se debe mencionar  la fuente citada por el otro autor, pero se hace la cita del documento que se está consultando. 

Ejemplo cita: Olds (citado en Turkle, 1997) indica que “muchos teóricos de la libido probablemente no sabían demasiado sobre las máquinas de vapor; realizaron un uso conceptual de las propiedades que les interesaban” (p. 179), considerando esta afirmación… Al final del trabajo se indica sólo la referencia bibliográfica del autor de la fuente que se está consultando, es decir, la referencia del trabajo de Turkle.

▶ Citar Documento sin autor

Como citar documento sin autor, en este caso en lugar del nombre del autor se indican las primeras palabras que se utilizan en la referencia bibliográficos que por lo general es el titulo

Ejemplo de la cita: “Las políticas de libre elección de centros tienen orígenes contrapuestos; uno de sus motores lo constituyeron quienes luchaban por sociedades menos clasistas, racistas y sexistas, y deseaban facilitar una mayor vertebración de la sociedad, tratando de evitar los colegios tipo gueto.” (Los orígenes de las políticas…, 2001, p. 92)

 

▶ Citas de obras clásicas  sin año exacto

Cuando se hacen citas de obras, en las cuales no esta clara el años de publicación,  se debe indicar el ya sea el año de la traducción, seguido con la abreviatura “trad.” o el año de la versión que se esta consultando luego de la palabra “versión” 

Ejemplo de la cita:“Pues así la cólera, a causa de su calor y presteza natural, aunque escucha a la razón, no escucha su mandamiento y se precipita a la venganza.” (Aristóteles, trad. 1990, pp.115-116)

 

▶ Citas con varios autores

Para hacer citas con varios autores, se debe indicar en primera instancia el autor seguido de “et.al.”  Generalmente cuando hay más de dos autores.

Ejemplo de la cita: Brown et al. (2004) lo indican claramente “El vapor de agua –o humedad–
del aire, el agua de un lago y el hielo de un glaciar son formas de la misma sustancia, H2O. Todas tiene las mismas propiedades químicas, pero sus propiedades físicas muestran grandes diferencias porque las propiedades
físicas de una sustancia dependen de su estado físico.” (p. 407)

 

Citar con Paráfrasis

Este tipo de cita corresponde a tomar las ideas de otros autores e incluirlas a partir del parafraseo, no es una transcripción exacta, pero igual se debe corresponder la idea de pertenecía a otra persona, para ello se debe indicar el número de pagina o parrafo desde donde se obtuvo.

Ejemplo de la cita: La construcción de la identidad se puede dar en dos escenarios, la que está fuera de la pantalla y la virtual, ya que al entrar en comunidades virtuales se crean identidades igualmente virtuales, que varían según los
contextos de ese mundo en la pantalla. (Turkle, 1997, p. 225)

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    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible.

    Jewish Rabbis have publicly announced that their Messiah will be revealed in the coming years who will be a leader and spiritual guide to all nations, gathering all religions under the worship of one God.

    Biblical prophecy tells us that this Jewish Messiah who will take the stage will be the antichrist “who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:4). For a time he will bring about a false peace, but “Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (Matthew 24:15)…then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24:21).

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them. This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically in Revelation 13:16-18:

    “He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

    Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.”

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards. Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency. This Mark couldn’t be spiritual because the word references two different physical locations. If it was spiritual it would just say in the forehead. RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency. It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it. Revelation 13:11-18 tells us that a false prophet will arise on the world scene doing miracles before men, deceiving them to receive this Mark. Do not be deceived! We must grow strong in Jesus. AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11).

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we needed two key things. One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast.

    Visit http://WWW.BIBLEFREEDOM.COM to see proof for these things and why the Bible truly is the word of God!

    If you haven’t already, it is time to seek God with all your heart. Jesus loves you more than you could imagine. He wants to have a relationship with you and redeem you from your sins. Turn to Him and repent while there is still hope! This is forever…God bless!

    “EITHER HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ULTIMATELY OWES ITS ORIGIN TO MINDLESS MATTER OR THERE IS A CREATOR…” – JOHN LENNOX

    We all know God exists. Why? Because without Him, we couldn’t prove anything at all. Do we live our lives as if we cannot know anything? No. So why is God necessary? In order to know anything for certain, you would have to know everything, or have revelation from somebody who does. Who is capable of knowing everything? God. So to know anything, you would have to be God, or know God.

    A worldview without God cannot account for the uniformity and intelligibility of nature. And why is it that we can even reason that God is the best explanation for this if there is no God? We are given reason to know or reject God, but never to know that He does not exist.

    It has been calculated by Roger Penrose that the odds of the initial conditions for the big bang to produce the universe that we see to be a number so big, that we could put a zero on every particle in the universe, and even that would not be enough to use every zero. What are the odds that God created the universe? Odds are no such thing. Who of you would gamble your life on one coin flip?

    Is there evidence that the Bible is the truth? Yes. Did you know that the creation accounts listed in the book of Genesis are not only all correct, but are also in the correct chronological order? That the Bible doesn’t say the Earth was formed in six 24-hour days but rather six long but finite periods of time? That the Bible makes 10 times more creation claims than all major “holy” books combined with no contradictions, while these other books have errors in them? The Bible stood alone by concurring with the big bang saying, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1); and says our universe is expanding, thousands of years before scientists discovered these things. Watch a potential life-changing video on the website listed below with Astronomer(PhD) Hugh Ross explaining all these facts based on published scientific data. He has authored many books, backed even by atheist scientists.

    Jesus came to pay a debt that we could not; to be our legal justifier to reconcile us back to a Holy God; only if we are willing to receive Him: “For the wages of sin is death…” (Romans 6:23).

    God so loved the world that He gave us His only begotten son, so that whoever believes in Him, through faith, shall not perish, but have everlasting life. Jesus says if we wish to enter into life to keep the commands! The two greatest commands are to love God with all your heart, soul, strength, and mind; and your neighbor as yourself. All the law hang on these commands. We must be born of and lead by the Holy Spirit, to be called children of God, to inherit the kingdom. If we are willing to humble ourselves in prayer to Jesus, to confess and forsake our sins, He is willing to give the Holy Spirit to those who keep asking of Him; giving us a new heart, leading us into all truth!

    Jesus came to free us from the bondage of sin. The everlasting fire was prepared for the devil and his angels due to disobedience to God’s law. If we do the same, what makes us any different than the devil? Jesus says unless we repent, we shall perish. For sin is the transgression of the law. We must walk in the Spirit so we may not fulfill the lusts of the flesh, being hatred, fornication, drunkenness and the like. Whoever practices such things will not inherit the kingdom (Galatians 5:16-26). If we sin, we may come before Jesus to ask for forgiveness (1 John 2:1-2). Evil thoughts are not sins, but rather temptations. It is not until these thoughts conceive and give birth by our own desires that they become sin (James 1:12-15). When we sin, we become in the likeness of the devil’s image, for he who sins is of the devil (1 John 3:8); but if we obey Jesus, in the image of God. For without holiness, we shall not see the Lord (Hebrews 12:14).

    The oldest religion in the world is holiness through faith (James 1:27). What religion did Adam and Eve follow before the fall? Jesus, Who became the last Adam, what religion does He follow? Is He not holy? He never told us to follow the rituals and traditions of man but to take up our cross and follow Him (Luke 9:23). There are many false doctrines being taught leading people astray. This is why we need the Holy Spirit for discernment. Unlike religion, holiness cannot be created. It is given to us from above by the baptism of the Spirit. Jesus is more than a religion; He is about having a personal relationship with the Father. Start by reading the Gospel of Matthew, to hear the words of God, to know His character and commandments. Follow and obey Jesus, for He is the way, the truth, and the life!

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