¿Qué es la Deconstrucción?

¿Qué es la Deconstrucción?


La Deconstrucción, en primera instancia es necesario aclara que el termino deconstrución, no es sinónimo de destrucción. 

 Es un concepto difícil de explicar, ya que en primera instancia no se trata de un método literario  que se pueda aplicar mediante una serie de pasos.Tampoco se trata de una postura, ni se trata de una filosofía o un conjunto de tesis que cuestionan la interrogante sobre el “ser”.

El término deconstrucción es una traducción propuesta por Jaques  Derrida al alemán Destruktion, que Heidegger, incorporo en su libro “Being and Time”


Jacques Derrida define la deconstrucción : 

“uno de los nombres posibles para designar, por metonimia, lo que sucede o lo que no llega a suceder, como lo puede ser una cierta dislocación que se repite regularmente”

(Derrida, 1972).

Asimismo, a lo largo de la historia han existido varios pensadores que han contribuido a los postulados de la Deconstrucción, entre ellos: 

David Viñas define  la deconstrucción: “Como una actitud crítica que plantea el debate contra la crítica literaria y contra los métodos empleados para interpretar los textos”. 

Y Pozuelo Yvancos  lo define: “Como una modalidad concreta de lectura de textos” .

¿Qué es La Deconstrucción?


La Deconstrucción se define como una estrategia filosófica, que suele invertir las posturas filosóficas tradicional que plantaban la idea de estructuras binarias jerárquicas que propone los análisis a partir de la oposición de  extremos.

Eso extremos  pueden ser:  (existencia- esencia, hombre-mujer, ser humano- animal, alma-cuerpo,entre otros).

La deconstrucción tratará de invertir esas jerarquías y desmontarlas evidenciando su falta de solidez, sus aporías y paradojas.

Por ello, en primera instancia , se debe hallar cuál es la oposición binaria jerárquica que domina en un texto, en eso consiste la deconstrucción una vez realizaba va demostrar  una serie de paradojas y aporías.

Según Derriba concebir la interpretación como una sustitución de cadenas de significantes implica que el discurso crítico deja de ser transparente. por lo cual, literatura y crítica no se pueden separarse. La teoría literaria es, ella misma, un texto.

Para la deconstrucción no existe un “dentro del texto” y un “fuera del texto.  No existe el metatexto ni el lenguaje transparente. y ello es fundamental para comprenderlo 

Asimismo, es “el desmontaje del logocentrismo” que constituye la matriz del idealismo. Este desmontaje implica además la “desconstitución” simultánea del idealismo o del espiritualismo en todas sus variantes” (Derrida, Posiciones). Por ello,  parece significar  el “desestructurar o descomponer ” la estructura de un determinado sistema.


La deconstrucción según Derrida es “un movimiento doble de reinversión y de neutralización”

La deconstrucción de Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)



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  19. Excelente explicación, gracias. Veo con naturalidad la Deconstrucion hoy en día. Tal vez motivada por una gran divulgación del pensamiento literario y filosófico. Es común incluir y desmembrar esas estructuras binarias del pensamiento dejando los extremos cada día menos definidos, menos invulnerables en sus diferencias embutidas.

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