¿Qué es la Mitocrítica?

¿Qué es la Mitocrítica?

 

La mitocrítica es un concepto introducido por Gilbert Durand  y se caracteriza por ser un procedimiento concreto de análisis artístico basado en los postulados teóricos del estructuralismo figurativo.

 

La mitocrítica como método de lectura o de análisis de textos

Este  método  estudia el relato partiendo de un mito ideal, a partir  de  todas las lecciones mitémicas, y partiendo las variaciones que este tiene.

Se caracteriza por analizar los textos literarios de la misma manera que se analiza un mito, es decir, este método de análisis literario estudia el objeto literario como si fuese un mito.  Y es necesario recalcar que Según  Mircéa Éliade que:

El mito es, en cierto modo, el modelo de cualquier relato.

y la cohesión entre ambos radica en la creación simbólica a través del lenguaje .

Además se puede afirma que el mito seria de alguna manera el modelo matricial de toda narración, ademas de que esta estructurado con base en esquemas y arquetipos fundamentales de la psiqué del sapiens sapiens, o sea la nuestra.

Se  presentan las estructuras míticas que pueden ser latentes  o patentes. Son estructuras inherentes al texto por ello, es necesario analizar e interpretar.

¿Cómo se aplica el método de análisis de  la mitocrítica?

Gilbert Durand indica que en primera instancia se debe aplicar el “Grille”  lo cual significa los tres regímenes de la imagen, es decir, lo heroico, lo místico y lo sintético. eso va permitir como lector ordenar las imágenes y símbolos presentes en el relato .

seguidamente, se debe descubrir las redundancias del mismo, lo que Mauron llama “metáforas obsesivas” estas delimitaran los mitemas que estructuran el texto.  permitiendo al lector realizar una lectura sincrónica del objeto de estudio.

Asimismo, se debe analizar las situaciones de los personajes y los espacios donde se mueven sus elementos míticos y su evolución.

Luego de establecer los mitemas, que son la agrupación de imágenes y estructuras arquetípicas repetidas a lo largo del relato de forma significativa.

Un tercer momento metodológico, es el  “tertium datum” que es donde se revela el sentido del texto lo cual es la meta de toda lectura crítica.

 

Biografía
– (1993). De la mitocrítica al mitoanálisis: figuras míticas y aspectos de la obra. Rubí: Anthropos, Editorial del Hombre.

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