La polifonía textual

La polifonía textual

 La polifonía  Es un concepto planteado e introducido por primera vez por Mijaíl Bajtín, y ha sido interpretado y definido   por varios teóricos como Oswald Ducrot, Julia Kristeva, G. Genette, M. Riffaterre.

Bajtín (1988) define  La polifonía  como “la pluralidad de voces y conciencias independientes e inconfundibles […]”  es esa diversidad de voces dentro del texto literario, que demuestran la diversidad de conciencias, ideologias y visiones de mundo distintas.

Y refleja   en el texto la presencia de sujetos literarios, ya sea sujeto lector, sujeto autor, y el los sujetos personajes.  Cada uno con sus propios discursos y su propia visión de mundo.

Entonces la polifonía viene siendo las distintas voces que encontramos dentro de un texto y las diversas visiones de mundo que tiene cada uno de estos sujetos, y ellos implica que el autor de un enunciado no se expresa en forma directa, sino a través de tres funciones distintas.


Las teorías sobre la polifonía han dividido su campo de estudio en tres niveles:

La polifonia

1. El sujeto empírico SE

Es el autor efectivo, quien produce el enunciado. En la obra literaria el sujeto es el autor biográfico, y se puede asociar  con el concepto de  el destinador del modelo actancial de Greimas; entendido éste como un actante, fuente de la acción comunicacional que presupone al destinatario como meta de dicha acción en particular.


2. El locutor  (L) 

La segunda voz o sujeto presente en la polifonia es la del locutor; y es el responsable del enunciado es decir, la persona a quien le atribuyen la responsabilidad de enunciar.


3. Enunciador (E)

La tercera voz o sujeto,  que no tiene nada que ver con el sujeto de la enunciación.  Ducrot  llama enunciador a los ”

diferentes puntos de vista que se presentan en el enunciado. No son personas sino puntos de perspectiva”


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