Isotopías- Definición de Greimas

Isotopías- Definición de Greimas

La Isotopía

La isotopía son un conjunto de semas que unificados dentro de un campo semánticos para dar una homogeneidad de significados, lo cual va   permitir una lectura adecuada; Pero para comprender  mejor el concepto de isotopía se va recurrir a la etimología de la misma:

La etimología de Isotopía

Etimologia de isotopía

 ¿Cuál es el concepto  de Isotopía?

Este  concepto  definido primeramente por Greimas (1966, p.53)

Este teórico Francés  tomó el concepto de Isotopía  de los postulados de la química-física, y lo adoptó a los estudios literarios.

Se entiende que isotopía como “un conjunto de categorías semánticas redundantes que permiten la lectura uniforme” de un relato, estas categorías son un  conjunto  de semas que  evita la ambigüedad en el textos.

La noción de isotopía va sugerir identidad semejanza y pertenencia a  una determinada cadena de significados.

Con ellas  se pretende  determinar la coherencia  y la significación de un relato o un texto.

Asimismo, las isotopías  permiten comprender un fenómeno macrosemántico, que es lo que se relaciona con la cohesión del texto,

a partir del descubrimiento de elementos en  un nivel microsemántico;

por medio de la repetición de semas, que en conjunto van a concluir las dimensiones sintagmáticas y paradigmáticas del texto.

Además  la isotopía es un concepto ligado a la cohesión textual y la coherencia textual que se van a manifestar al plano de la expresión o al plano del contenido a distintos niveles
fónicos, morfológicos y sintácticos.
La isotopía es lo que va determinar la línea temática o de significación que se va desarrollar
dentro del desarrollo de un relato o un discurso.

¿Cómo reconocer las  Isotopías?

  1. Para reconocer las isotopías  es necesario aplicar a los sememas la operación de asimilación: 

    •  Es decir, se va buscar en el texto todas los semas (palabras) que se repitan o formen parte de un mismo campo semántico.
    • Estos semas se deben considerar a nivel denotativo y connotativo,  puesto que no se puede separar las descripciones connotativas de la denotación,  porque las isotopías son una mezcla que proviene de ambas.
  2. se deben considerar  los semas en  contextos a partir de los rasgos  distintivos o definitorios :

    • Es decir, a partir de si vienen  del sistema funcional de la lengua van a ser “inherentes” o si vienen de  una norma  socializada o idiolectal  que son los “aferentes”.
  3. Otra operación de la distinción entre semas específicos y genéricos:

    • Cabe recordar que un sema genérico es un conjunto de clasemas, que van a permitir  la aproximación de  dos sema vecinos .
    • Y el específico va ser un conjunto de sememas, que van a permitir la oposición  de dos sememas muy cercanos que tienen características propias.

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