El lector Modelo- Lector in fabula de Umberto Eco

El lector Modelo- Lector in fabula de Umberto Eco

El lector Modelo o lector in Fabula,  el crítico Umberto Eco,  plantea la cooperación interpretativa del lector  y texto como modelo de interacción interpretativa .Umberto eco

Eco define el texto literario  a partir de dos sentidos como:


  • Un mecanismo  económico que necesita de la plusvalía de sentido que el destinatario le  pueda dotar.
  • Un mensaje  que busca dejarle al lector la posibilidad de interpretar, con margen de cierta univocidad.


El Texto literario es una manifestación lingüística que representa una cadena de artificios expresivos,

que requiere de un lector que debe actualizar, ya que es un mecanismo perezoso, que se encuentra incompleto. (1981: 76)

Y además, el  texto literario utiliza ciertas estrategias textuales para dirigir las interpretaciones del lector: “Un texto es un producto cuya suerte interpretativa debe formar parte de su propio mecanismo generativo:

generar un texto significa aplicar una estrategia que incluye las previsiones de los movimientos del otro; como ocurre, por lo demás, en toda estrategia” (1981: 79).

Para conseguir, eso el autor debe  prever un lector modelo que tenga determinadas competencias y que coopere eficientemente con el texto como:

  • El patrimonio lingüístico

  • Cierto uso de la gramaticales

  • Referencias Culturales  y conocimiento de ciertos espacios geográficos.


El Lector Modelo es el que puede interpretar el texto de manera análoga a la del autor que lo generó. Sin embargo,  es necesario aclarar  que puede que este no exista. por lo cual  el texto debe ir construirlo a través de los movimientos del texto.

Eco propone la existencia de dos tipos de texto

Los textos Cerrados:

son los que instituyen un tipo concreto de lector, es decir, que emplean términos y referencias  para un tipo de lector específico.

“No hay nada más abierto que un texto cerrado” (Eco 83)


Los textos abiertos:

Son los  que ofrecen una relativa variedad de caminos e interpretaciones, el universo de su discurso es finito,

“pero por muchas que sean las interpretaciones posibles, unas repercutirán sobre otras de modo tal que no se excluyan, sino que, en cambio, se refuercen recíprocamente” (Eco. 84).



El texto puede considerarse “una inmensa máquina de producción de interpretaciones¨, pero al mismo tiempo el texto va indicar el correcto recorrido para la lectura, por ello existen buenas o malas interpretaciones y no todas son iguales.

Sobre un texto se pueden haber  infinitas conjeturas, pero al final estas deben ser probadas por la coherencia del texto, sólo él las  podrá probar o desaprobar.

Y aunque requiere de la participación de un lector, esto no elimina el hecho de que el texto posee una  estructura semántica y que esta conduce a varios tipos de isotopías textuales.

Los textos pueden suscitar lecturas infinitas, pero estas no pueden ser cualquier lectura el lector no participa por la libre.



Eco, U. (1981).  El Lector Modelo. Barcelona: Editorial Lumen.


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