La Muerte del Autor

La Muerte del Autor

La Muerte del Autor

Roland Barthes-  “El nacimiento del lector se paga con la muerte del Autor


La Muerte del Autor“, es un texto publicado por Roland Barthes escrito en 1968.  Propone los postulados alrededor de la problemática del autor, y como este muere y desaparece para la Nueva Crítica Literaria. Además  propone que la noción de la “tiranía del autor”, como un elemento que se debe erradicar, puesto que tal tiranía obstaculizan la lectura apropiada y la comprensión del texto literario.

El Autor a través de la historia

Es importante recalcar que el papel del autor en la Edad Media, era a partir del colectivo, es decir, los autores  no representaban una figura importante, sino que  la obra se presentaba  bajo el nombre del creador del mundo, y los escritores no tenía lugar.

En la época Clásica la figura del autor comienza a tomar relevancia dentro de la sociedad, pero es hasta El Renacimiento que adquiere  mayor  importancia.  Se establece una analogía del mismo como divinidad y se convierte en una figura hegemónica, y comienza la conocida “era del autor”  como productor  de textos de gran valor. además se valora la persona física sobre la obra, entonces la obra  del autor  va cobrar valor gracias al nombre del lector. Como dice Barthes, “la persona humana” es la que ocupa el centro de la escena creativa. Es el sujeto que desplaza al objeto a un segundo plano. Y en este sentido la obra permanece oculta fuera de la experiencia del otro.

Como se lo menciona Barthes el gran problema es que el autor limita la compresión texto, y lo redirige a la vida del autor, con base a los hechos biográficas que rodean su vida ya sea contextuales, políticos o sociales ; y  estos son los principales elementos en los cuales se hace el análisis de la obra.

Lo importante Según Barthes con:

“El nacimiento del lector se paga con la muerte del Autor

En el texto la voz del autor se ha instaurado como autoridad, imposibilitando al lector  para que este no pueda encontrar su propia voz en el relato de la obra.

El imponer la voz del autor, es imponer un seguro en el texto, dando también  un único significado.  Al silenciar la voz del autor, el texto por si solo comienza tener su voz propia y por ende a resignificar, esta ya no es una posesión o propiedad de un autor, y comienza a tomar importancia la figura del lector, quien hasta el momento no había sido tomado en cuenta.

Con La Muerte del Lector, se pretende dar  cabida al lector y al interprete para generar múltiples lecturas; porque si bien es cierto, un texto esta formado por múltiples escrituras, y como ya lo mencionaba Eco , es necesario establecer un dialogo con el texto para distinguir su significación.





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