Resumen: Tres propuestas analíticas para interpretar textos literario Ramírez Caro

Resumen: Tres propuestas analíticas para interpretar textos literario Ramírez Caro

         La propuesta de Ramírez Caro tiene como objetivo mostrar a los lectores (especialmente a los docentes ) las tres posturas teóricas que más han aportado al análisis e interpretación de los textos literarios.

Las cuales son el estructuralismo, la semiótica y la sociocrítica  todas  fundadas dentro de las corrientes formalistas- estructurales, que enfocan en la interpretación del texto a partir de él mismo o  como sujeto activo con pluricidad de sentidos y significados;

Abandonando  las interpretaciones extratextuales  que ponían intermediarios para comprender el texto, como  los son  paradigmas historicistas biográficos (se centra en el autor) o los sociológico (centrado en el contexto).

Estas tendencias presuponen la comprensión del texto por si mismo.

► El Estructuralismo

Es una tendencia que surgió en los años 70 en Francia. Cuyo enfoque imita los procedimientos científicos y establece relaciones sistemáticas entre  el comportamiento humano, individual y colectivo y las constantes que se generan de ellas se denominan Estructuras. 

 

Que reúne una serie de campos del pensar en las ciencias humanas tales como:

  •  La antropología (Lévi-Strauss).

  • La crítica literaria (Barthes)

  • El psicoanálisis freudiano (Lacan),

  • la investigación historiográfica (Foucault)

  • Las corrientes filosóficas específicas como el marxismo (Althusser).

 

Dentro del ámbito literario que es lo que compete para abordar un texto literario;  el estrucuralismo planea la idea de que el texto posee una estructura, que no solo organiza el texto, sino que  también le otorga una cohesión interdependiente.

Estas estructuras son unidades que pueden ser de carácter espacial, temporal, actorial o de acontecimientos:

  • El espacio: se indica por medio de topónimos, adverbios de lugar, deícticos y verbos espaciales.
  • El tiempo:  se indica por medio de los verbos temporales, los adverbios y las formas deícticas.
  • Acontecimientos: son los hechos realizados dentro de los topos tiempo- espacio.  Que describen estados

Para establecer una estructura se debe entablar la relación y conexión entre las partes, a partir de paralelismos y opocisiones. Según Ramírez es necesario explicar o juzgar el contenido del texto, sino comprobar la coherencia existente entre los elementos.

El análisis estructuralista tiene como pilar el establecimiento de estructuras profundas entre los objetos, por ello la función del crítico literario  es buscar en los objetos,  qué  inconscientemente lo ha constituido; estas estructura superficial se relaciona con el nivel implícito o generativo del que se consideran meras transformaciones: en el relato hay que buscar esas estructuras narrativas subyacentes. y es necesario recalcar que el análisis estructuralista se preocupa por el cómo esta hecho el texto y no lo que significa.

 

► La Semiótica

  • Es una ciencia que se enfoca en comprender los signos, su naturaleza,  sus funciones y su funcionamiento.
  • por otra, parte plantea un inventario y una descripción de los sistema de signos de una comunidad histórica y de las relaciones que existen entre sí.
  • Estos signos son de naturaleza   lingüísticos y no lingüísticos.
  • Dichos signos son  los fenómenos  culturales cuya función es   vincular contenidos culturales de una sociedad.
  • Por lo tanto, la semiótica concibe la cultura como un sistema de signos (mitos, arte, ritos, comportamientos)
Los textos literarios son signos compuestos de:
  •  Una obra-cosa, símbolo sensible creado por el artista.
  • Un objeto estético o significación asentada en la conciencia colectiva.
  • Una relación con la cosa significada.

A partir de este sentido, el texto literario es un signo, una estructura y un valor;

y al ser el  signo autónomo: puede tener una relación indirecta o metafórica, con la cosa significada, sin dejar de aludirla y posee una función comunicativa o referencial.

Es necesario recalcar que los significantes adquieren significados adecuados solamente por la interacción contextual,    es decir que un signo va tener sentido dentro de un contexto determinado, e incluso si se altera el contexto, los demás elementos pierden su valor .

 

Existen tres niveles de análisis semiótico de los textos literarios:

1) El sintáctico : que enfoca la relación signo-signo.

2) El semántico que asume las relaciones signo-significación

3) pragmático centrada en las relaciones signo-sujeto.

 

►  La Sociocrítica

Es una determinada ciencia que  busca profundizar en el entendimiento de la literatura como un hecho social.

Se coincibe como  un estudio social y textual al mismo tiempo.

Tiene como sentido  el  ver cómo se inscriben en el texto las condiciones sociales indisociables de la textualidad.

Es decir, toda creación textual y artística es una práctica social e ideológica.

El texto no remite directamente al contexto,  para establecer esta conexión es necesario realizarlo desde una perspectiva lingüística y discursiva,

ya que las mismas  está mediatizada por una codificación que funciona como filtro y estas son   el mito, el símbolo, el intertexto y el interdiscurso.

La sociocrítica busca primero definir la forma del texto y  el análisis parte del texto hacia el contexto.

Busca establecer la organización interna de los textos,  sus sistemas de funcionamiento, sus redes de sentido, sus tensiones, pero también el encuentro en el texto de discursos heterogéneos y contradictorios.

La sociocrítica interroga lo implícito, los presupuestos, lo no dicho o lo no pensado, los silencios del texto y formula la hipótesis de lo inconsciente social del texto, dentro de una problemática de lo imaginario.

El  análisis socio- textual introduce lo ideológico en la enunciación como función productora y principio de estructuración

 

► Hacia una lectura creativa y participativa

Luego de haber definido y mostrado los aportes de esta tres propuestas ,de Jorge  Ramírez Caro  plantea la idea de que todo texto literario posee una fuerza antinatural que está influida por la institucionalidad.

El   proceso de lectura se lleva a cabo a partir de dos ejes de expectativa el dado por el texto (el intraliterario) y el aportado por el lector ( el extraliterario).

El lector tiene como función convertir en habla un texto, es decir, reconstruir fielmente ya que el texto es una estructura con vacíos cuya función es estimular y desorientar al lector; es por ello que esta estructura reclama un lector activo, dinámico y creativo, debido que cuando se lee  hay un proceso de reconstrucción

 Existe una asimetría entre texto y lector estimula una actividad productora de parte del lector. el texto por sí solo no  puede declarar su intencionalidad, es el lector el que vivencia aquel diálogo, reescribe y colabora con el
texto para que éste se abra y se muestre. Esta es la asimetría que genera el proceso de lectura.

El texto está  incompleto y abierto, lleno de vacíos que deben ser llenados con el proceso de lectura,el cual activará las facultades que permiten crear el mundo narrado.

 

Referencias:

Ramírez Caro, J. (2016). Cómo analizar de todo. Textos populares, mediáticos y didácticos. Costa Rica: EUNA

 

 

 

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